Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the narrowing and hardening in the arteries due to deposition of cholesterol and other fatty substances. The disease is also known as calcification of blood vessels. Initially, cholesterol is carried by the blood accumulate. The longer, cholesterol pile it will harden and narrow the blood vessels. As a result, an interruption of blood vessels are fragile and easily broken. If there is a fraction, it may cause injury to the blood vessel wall.
Injuries that occur can lead to the formation of blood clots in blood vessels that increasingly clog blood vessels cavity. Blood clot can lead to strokes and heart attacks. Prior to the occurrence of sudden narrowing or blockage of arteries, atherosclerosis usually does not cause symptoms. Symptoms depends on the location of the formation so that it can be a symptom of heart, brain, limbs or other places.
If atherosclerosis cause severe narrowing of the arteries, then part of the body that should be fed by the blood will not get adequate amounts of blood, which carries oxygen to the tissues. High cholesterol and accumulate in blood vessels will cause the blood vessels become stiff, not elastic and narrowed. Early symptoms of narrowing of the arteries can be a pain or cramping that occurs when blood flow can not meet the need for an oxygen.
Here are the theories of how the occurrence of Atherosclerosis:
1) High Cholesterol
- If high blood cholesterol levels will cause injury ti the lining of the arteries and cause inflammation reaction to allow cholesterol and fatty substances other in an accumulated. Injury to the artery wall may also result from the immune system and also of toxins. In both cases there is a change that resulted in the formation of atheromas.
- Some white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages present at the formation of Atherosclerosis. These cells only come together when inflammation occurs. Atherosclerosis begins when monocytes activated and removed from the blood flow through the artery wall. There will turn into foam cells, which accumulate cholesterol and fatty substances other. At the same time, it formed a group of cholesterol, fatty substances and foam cell. This group forms a atheromas in the lining of the artery walls. This is what causes the arteries to become thick.
- Infection can also cause Atherosclerosis where bacteria such as Chlamydia pneumoniae or helicobacter pylori (which can cause stomach ulcer) or from certain viruses that have yet to be identified. This infection can cause damage to the lining of the arterial wall and allow the occurrence of Atherosclerosis.